AquaMarine: Fouling in general - part 3


December 12, 2016

AquaMarine: Fouling in general - part 3:

In parts one and two of our four-part series we covered an introduction to fouling and the current options to combat fouling, now in part three we take a look at copper as an anti-fouling treatment, its pros and cons and what is the difference between hard & soft ant-foul paints.

How exactly does copper work in anti-fouling?

When coming into contact with seawater together with the presence of oxygen, the cuprous ion (Cu+) is formed acting as the main biocide for copper coatings. And therefore, opposing popular belief, it is this ion that is the main fouling detergent, not copper oxide or the copper itself.

In effect, as copper can be very easily absorbed by organic matter, the ions can progressively overwhelm the natural biological processes of marine organisms and when ingested in large enough quantities, becomes harmfully toxic.

If a relatively concentrated layer of copper ions is surrounding a boat to act as a shielding barrier against the oncoming onslaught of marine life, this is usually sufficient to keep heavy forms of macro-fouling at bay.

What’s the problem with copper based anti-foul coatings?

Annoyingly, a thick layer of healthy barnacles can happily plant themselves on even the smallest area of unpainted hull. And consequently, with copper coatings over time the cupric ions will dissociate and become more dilute meaning that fouling can wriggle its way onto boat surfaces.

The harmful nature of copper treatments due to their biocides means that there has been a proposal to ban them altogether. Benthic animals have been shown to suffer in particular from copper poisoning, experiencing reduced respiration rates and impaired growth in mussels, clams and other shellfish. Although copper will probably not suffer the same fate as TBT based anti-fouls, Holland has attempted to do so in the past and there are current restrictions for its use in Sweden.

However, copper isn’t the complete fiend that TBT is considered to be. The initial thick layer of copper applied to boats that begins to dilute readily dissociates into some less harmful copper complexes (as compared to the cuprous ion) that form part of marine organism’s natural diet.

Another issue concerning copper based treatments is there use on propellers. The copper and copper oxide can lead to corrosion of aluminium alloys by promoting electrolytic fission.

Semi-permanent coatings?

Semi-permanent coatings are a slightly different variation of copper based treatment. This method relies upon a more solid, longer lasting approach whilst still operating in a similar way.

In this case, pure copper (or a copper zinc alloy) is used and set in a sturdy epoxy resin mix. Similarly, to the copper based anti-foul treatment, when the copper element is exposed to sea water and oxidation occurs, biocidal cuprous ions are leached out to interact with fouling species.

But in contrast, this method has the attractive benefit that it endures a much slower process of dissociation from the boat surface compared to the eroding anti-foul paints. Although this means that semi-permanent coatings have the ability to last much longer, erosion does still occur.

Because of this, the thick, hard coatings must be refreshed with light abrasion and a wash off on a yearly basis to expose a new layer of combating biocidal copper.

As well as the annual inconvenience of this revitalisation of the copper coat, semi-permanent coatings are considerably more expensive than standard anti-foul paints and seem to be hit and miss with many boat owners.

The difficulty of application for this method is also particularly unattractive and lends its self to the inconsistency of its success. The process requires a complete clean slate on your boat surface, usually achieved by a rigorous blast off of any old anti-fouling. Oh, and its only available in one colour… brown.

Hard and soft anti-fouling paints?

Simply, the important difference between hard and soft anti-fouling paints is their ability to resist erosion.

Soft anti-fouling paints erode more quickly, and therefore are less suitable for fast motor boats that experience greater physical abrasion of the water on the boat surface. This susceptibility to erosion is also emphasized when these speed demons are exposed to high pressure on the chine edges and planing surfaces.

As a result, the soft anti-foul paint can be easily stripped away, unveiling naked or old anti-fouled layers of the boat surface. On the other hand, hard anti-fouling paints are much more durable.

Hard anti-fouling paint provides a smoother finish and a greater resistance to erosion and so is the ideal choice of the two for fast boats, as well as offering a wider range of colours.



Our Terms of Use of this website and our relationship with you are governed by the following:

Thanks for using the www.aquamarineuk.com website. It is solely owned and controlled by AquaMarine (owned by Fresh Formulations Ltd, Stanroyd Mill, Colne, Lancashire, BB8 7BW). Use of the name AquaMarine, refers to Fresh Formulations Ltd for the purpose of this document here on in. The following terms and conditions apply to your use of this website. In using this website you acknowledge that you have read and understood and agreed to comply with the terms of this agreement and any directives in application / use of AquaMarine products including, AquaMarine PROP, AquaMarine HULL and AquaMarine RIB.

GENERAL

AquaMarine may make changes to the website that include modifications, improvements and additions, change of images, products and services referred to within the website without notice. AquaMarine may also, without notice, make changes to the terms and conditions herewith and any changes will be available. Your use of this website following these changes constitutes your agreement to follow and be bound by the terms as changed. On occasion, additional terms and conditions may apply to the purchase of specific products and other uses of this website. By purchasing from the site and by using the website, you agree to such terms and conditions.

WEBSITE CONTENT DISCLAIMER & LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

The www.aquamarineuk.com website and the information, names, logos, icons and pictures relating to our products is provided on an ‘available’ basis without representation or warranty of any kind. To the maximum extent permitted by law, AquaMarine excludes all warranties, obligations, representations, liabilities, terms or conditions (whether implied or not or arise in contract, by statute otherwise and irrespective of the negligence of AquaMarine, it’s employees or agents) in connection with the information, materials or graphics on this website (including, without limitation, any implied warranty of satisfactory quality, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual property rights).

AquaMarine does not warrant that the items contained in this website or it’s content will be error-free, that defects will be corrected, or that this website or it’s server are free of viruses or other harmful components. However, it shall use reasonable process to ensure that the website is free of viruses or other harmful components.

While information and content on this website has been provided in good faith to provide information about the AquaMarine paint coating range, AquaMarine (Fresh Formulations), it’s employees, affiliates and subsidiaries shall in no event be liable for any damages of any kind whatsoever, including limitation, direct, incidental, special indirect or consequential losses or any losses whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data, damage or profits, whether in an action for breach of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of or access to this website or in connection with any materials, products, information or recommendations on this website.

Please note that the information, materials and graphics available on the AquaMarine website may be incomplete, out of date or incorrect. It is therefore important that you verify and confirm information directly with AquaMarine before taking any action in reliance upon it. The information, materials and graphics available on this website may be subject to change without notice.

LINKS

This website may contain links to or may contain references to other websites, which are neither, directly, or indirectly operated by AquaMarine. Therefore, we have no responsibility whatsoever for the contents of any such linked website or any link contained in such a linked site. The links supplied are solely for your convenience and therefore, they do not imply any endorsement by the AquaMarine brand whatsoever. In no event is AquaMarine liable for the contents or practices of third party websites linking to this website or for third party websites linked to.

Use of content from the AquaMarine site is prohibited. By visiting the website you agree not to add to, alter, substitute or amend wholly or in any part any information, images or other such content from this website.

ONLINE SALES / PURCHASE OF AQUAMARINE PRODUCTS

Any products displayed on this website for sale, that are purchased by a customer or business, will constitute an offer to buy and shall be subject to our standard conditions of sale.

PRIVACY & CONFIDENTIALITY

Any information you transmit through this website is subject to AquaMarine’s privacy policy. You are prohibited from transmitting to or from this site any unlawful, threatening, libellous, defamatory, obscene, inflammatory or such like materials that could give rise to any civil or criminal liability under UK and International Law.

You agree that AquaMarine may use or disclose information about your demographics and use of the website in a manner that does not reveal your identity.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

The name AquaMarine is trademarked and owned by AquaMarine and therefore, any use of the name AquaMarine is wholly prohibited. Any use without express permission by AquaMarine in writing, will constitute an infringement of copyright. AquaMarine reserves the right in this instance to pursue damages for use of the trademark and request by law that any use of the name is stopped immediately.

COPYRIGHT

The contents of the AquaMarine website including without limitation all images, illustrations, designs, photographs, icons, video content, graphics, written materials and any other materials that appear as part of this website are the property of AquaMarine.

The copying or modification of any item on this website is strictly prohibited, unless written permission is obtained from AquaMarine.

You may print or download extracts of materials for non-commercial, informational or personal use and you may also copy this material for the purposes of sending it, with no commercial objective to individuals for their personal use, as long as you acknowledge that AquaMarine is the source.

Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel or otherwise any licence or right under any patent or trademark of AquaMarine.

In relation to any materials on this website, AquaMarine gives you permission to download items and use them for the purpose of promoting sales if you are a distributor or stockist of AquaMarine products.

You will use these materials in such a way as to promote AquaMarine’s name and reputation.

SEVERANCE & WAIVER

If any provision of these terms and conditions is found to be invalid by any court having jurisdiction the invalidity of such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of this agreement, which shall remain in force.

THE AGREEMENT

This agreement constitutes the entire agreement between AquaMarine and you and super-cedes any prior understanding or agreements (written or oral).

APPLICABLE LAW & JURISDICATION

These terms and conditions shall be governed by, construed and enforced in accordance with English Law.

OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION

All programs, products, processes, software, technology, information, know-how, publications, designs, or ideas may be the subject of other rights, including other intellectual property rights, which are duly acknowledged.

Nothing contained within our website constitutes a contract unless specifically agreed with you.

None of LBS Global’s (T/A AquaMarine) employees or Directors will be liable for any indirect, incidental, consequential, or punitive damages or any other damages whatsoever, whether in an action of contract, statute, tort (including, without limitation, negligence), or otherwise, relating to the use of the website or any of the information contained within it.

Our website is intended to provide general information on a particular subject or subjects and is not an exhaustive treatment of such subject(s). Accordingly, the information in this document is not intended to constitute consultancy advice or services.

By using our website, you agree to these Terms of Usage.

If you have any queries on any of the above, please Contact Us

Call Us

+44 1282 873 320

Contact Request

We call you

Email Us

Need Help?

Shop Now

AquaMarine Range